# When is a Boolean ultrapower an ultrapower?

## Joseph Van Name

### CUNY Borough of Manhattan Community College

The Boolean ultrapower construction is a natural generalization of the classical ultrapower construction, but the Boolean ultrapower uses an ultrafilter on a complete Boolean algebra instead of a set. It was initially unknown as to whether in ZFC there exists a Boolean ultrapower which is not always isomorphic to a classical ultrapower. This problem was resolved in 1976 by Bernd and Sabine Koppelberg who constructed a Boolean ultrapower which is not an ultrapower. On the other hand, there does not seem to be any reference in the mathematical literature to atomless Boolean ultrapowers which are isomorphic to classical ultrapowers.

We shall first generalize the notion of a Boolean ultrapower to the notion of a BPA-ultrapower which is in a sense the most general ultrapower construction. Then by applying a result of Joel David Hamkins which characterizes the Boolean ultrapowers which are classical ultrapowers, we shall investigate examples of Boolean ultrapowers which are not classical ultrapowers as well as Boolean ultrapowers which are classical ultrapowers. For instance, I claim that under GCH every complete atomless Boolean algebra has an ultrafilter which gives rise to a Boolean ultrapower which is not a classical ultrapower. On the other hand, using the Keisler-Shelah isomorphism theorem, we may construct Boolean ultrapowers in ZFC on a fairly general class of Boolean algebras which are classical ultrapowers.

Joseph Van Name received his PhD from the University of South Florida in 2013. He is interested in Boolean algebras, ordered sets, general topology, point-free topology, set-theory, universal algebra, and model theory. Most of his mathematics research involves dualities that are similar to Stone duality.