Topic Archive: Gettier examples
We will survey the standard modal logic approach to model the “knowledge vs justified true belief” scenarios, in particular its recent account in Williamson, Timothy “A note on Gettier cases in epistemic logic” Philosophical Studies 172.1 (2015): 129-140. We argue that the “old school” approach by Williamson to model justified belief as a modality without going deeper to the level of individual justifications is rather limited. Whereas it indeed suffices to satisfactory treat Gettier examples with a unique justification in the picture, it fails even on simplest examples with more than one justification, e.g., Russell’s Prime Minister Example. On the constructive side, we offer a principled way to building epistemic models entirely from systems of justifications; standard epistemic models are special cases of these evidence-based epistemic models. New models cover wide range of epistemic scenarios, including Russell’s example, in a natural way.